Basic information of Fe3O4

wallpapers Robot Industry 2021-04-07
Ferroferric oxide is an inorganic substance with the chemical formula Fe3O4. Because ferroferric oxide is a black crystal with magnetism, it is also called magnetic iron oxide. This substance is insoluble in water, alkali solutions, ethanol, ether, and other organic solvents. The natural ferroferric oxide is insoluble in acid solution and is easily oxidized to iron oxide (Fe2O3) in the air in a humid state. Usually used as a pigment and polishing agent, it can also be used to make audiotapes and telecommunications equipment.

Physical properties
The black Fe3O4 is a mixed valence oxide of iron. It has a melting point of 1597°C and a density of 5.18g/cm3. It is insoluble in water and soluble in acid solutions. It appears in the form of magnetite in nature. Strong submagnetism and high conductivity.
Ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials undergo a secondary phase transition above the Curie temperature to transform into paramagnetic materials. The Curie temperature of Fe3O4 is 585℃.
The magnetic properties of materials can be divided into five categories:
(a) Diamagnetism (diamagnetism): All electrons in a substance have been paired in atomic or molecular orbits, their spins are opposite, and there is no permanent magnetic moment.
(b) Paramagnetism: There are unpaired electrons in atoms or molecules, and there is a permanent magnetic moment, but there is no interaction between the magnetic moments.
(c) Ferromagnetism: Each atom has several unpaired electrons, and the atomic magnetic moments are relatively large, and they interact with each other, making the atomic magnetic moments parallel.
(d) Ferrimagnetism (ferrite magnetism): The magnetic moments of adjacent atoms exhibit unequal anti-parallel arrangement.
(e) Antiferromagnetism: Paramagnetism above the Néel temperature; below the Néel temperature, the magnetic moments of adjacent atoms between the magnetic moments show an equal antiparallel arrangement.
Fe3O4 has high electrical conductivity, and the unusual electrochemical properties of Fe3O4  can be attributed to the transfer of electrons between Fe2+ and Fe3+.
 
Chemical properties
Combustion of iron wire in oxygen will generate ferroferric oxide. Comparing the free energy of Gibbs generated by the standard mole of iron oxide, it is concluded that Fe3O4 has the greatest thermodynamic stability, so the product is Fe3O4.
Iron and air will form oxides on its surface. At this time, the chemical composition of the oxide film itself is not uniform. For example, a piece of low-carbon steel can be covered by three kinds of oxide films: FeO is in contact with the metal, Fe2O3 on the side in contact with air, and Fe3O4 in the middle. More precisely, perhaps a mixture of saturated solid solutions of three oxides constitutes the oxide film on the surface of the steel.
At the same time, the thickness of the oxide film also varies depending on different environmental conditions during oxidation. At room temperature, the thickness of the oxide on the relatively pure iron in dry air does not exceed 20 angstroms (1 angstrom = 0.1 nanometers), but the thickness of the oxide film in moist air increases significantly, and rust spots on the surface can be seen. At this time, the oxide deposition is layered, the side close to the metal is a dense amorphous anhydrous layer, and the side close to the air is a thick porous hydration layer.
Iron reacts with water vapor to produce Fe3O4 and hydrogen.
Fe3O4 has anti-corrosion effects. For example, the bluing of steel parts (also known as blue-burning and baking blue) is to use the oxidation effect of alkaline oxidizing solution to form a blue-black or dark blue Fe3O4 film on the surface of steel parts. Used to increase corrosion resistance, gloss and aesthetics.
 
Uses of Fe3O4
Ferroferric oxide is a commonly used magnetic material.
Specially made pure ferroferric oxide is used as raw material for audio tapes and telecommunications equipment.
Natural magnetite is the raw material for iron smelting.
Used to make primers and topcoats.
Ferric oxide is the main raw material for the production of iron catalyst (a kind of catalyst).
It is very hard and can be used as abrasive. It has been widely used in the field of automobile braking, such as brake pads, brake shoes, etc.
Ferroferric oxide has been recognized in the field of domestic welding materials, and the production of welding rods and wires is still in its infancy, and the market prospect is very broad.
Fe3O4 shows good performance in sewage treatment due to its high specific gravity and strong magnetism.
Ferroferric oxide can also be used as a pigment and polishing agent.
We can also use certain chemical reactions, such as the use of sodium nitrite, etc., to form a dense layer of ferroferric oxide on the surface of the steel to prevent or slow down the corrosion of steel, such as the bluing of firearms, saw blades, etc. Blackened. Commonly known as "baked blue".
Make special electrodes.
 
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