Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal production -- Australia's ban on exports of alumina and aluminium ore to Russia, including bauxite, will further disrupt supply chains and production at leading aluminium producer Rusal, consultancy Wood Mackenzie said on Monday.
The Australian government announced the ban on Sunday as part of its ongoing sanctions against Moscow for its aggression in Ukraine, saying Russia relies on it to meet one-fifth of its alumina needs. WoodMac senior manager Uday Patel said in a statement that the ban would make it difficult for Rusal to maintain normal primary aluminum production.
Rusal said it was assessing the impact of Australia's move and would make further announcements if necessary. "It is increasingly likely that UC Rusal's only option for alumina procurement will be through a Chinese entity." The Australian alumina ban has also had an impact on the sulfide prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
What is sulfide?
In inorganic chemistry, sulfide refers to a type of compound formed by a metal or non-metal with strong electropositiveness and sulfur. Most metal sulfides can be regarded as salts of hydrosulfuric acid. Since hydrosulfuric acid is a weak dibasic acid, sulfides can be divided into three types: acid salt (HS, hydrosulfide), normal salt (S) and polysulfide (Sn).
The compound of -2 valent sulfur, antimony sulfide can be regarded as the salt of hydrosulfuric acid. Metal and sulfur are directly reacted, or hydrogen sulfide gas is passed into the metal salt solution, or sodium sulfide is added to the salt solution, metal sulfides can be produced.
Alkali metal sulfide and ammonium sulfide are easily soluble in water, and their solution appears alkaline due to hydrolysis. The sulfides of alkaline earth metals, scandium, yttrium and lanthanides are more insoluble. When the outer electron configuration of the cation is 18 electrons and 18+2 electrons, insoluble and colored sulfides are often formed due to strong polarization. Most water-insoluble sulfides can dissolve in acid and release hydrogen sulfide. A few metal sulfides (such as CuS, antimony sulfide) that are extremely insoluble can be dissolved with oxidizing acid. At this time, S is oxidized to sulfur and removed from the solution.
In the precipitation. Insoluble metal sulfides have a dissolution-precipitation equilibrium in the solution. By controlling the acidity of the solution, the concentration of antimony sulfide in the solution can be changed, so that insoluble metal sulfides with different solubility can be precipitated out separately. This is the basis for the separation and identification of metal ions with hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis.
Uses of sulfides
The antimony sulfide is a catalyst in organic synthesis. Because sulfur-containing organic compounds (such as thiophene) can poison ordinary hydrogenation catalysts, antimony sulfide can be used to catalyze the hydrogenation reaction of sulfur-containing organic substances. Cadmium sulfide can be used to make photovoltaic cells. Lead sulfide is used to make infrared sensors. Calcium polysulfide, barium polysulfide and ammonium polysulfide are fungicides and insecticides. Carbon disulfide is used as a solvent in industry. In addition, carbon disulfide is also used to make carbon tetrachloride. In organic chemistry, carbon disulfide is used to insert -C(=S)-S- groups. Zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide are used to make phosphors, and high-purity cadmium sulfide is a good semiconductor. Tetraphosphorus trisulfide is used to make matches and fireworks. Tetraphosphorus decasulfide is used to make pesticides, lubricant additives and flotation agents. Sodium sulfide is widely used in the manufacture of sulfur dyes, organic drugs and pulp production. antimony sulfide and barium sulfide are used to make luminous paint.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected economies and chemical companies in many countries around the world. Measures such as extending holidays and resuming work were taken to control the development of the epidemic, and the normal operation of some chemical enterprises was also affected to some extent.
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