The European Commission has submitted to member states a new draft of sanctions against Russia, including an oil embargo. Some member states that rely heavily on Russian energy sought exemptions.
Western media reported that the European Commission draft of the sixth round of sanctions against Russia includes within six to eight months gradually banning oil imports from Russia, but allowing Hungary and Slovakia to extend the transition period for several months; The Russian Savings bank and other large financial institutions on the sanctions list.
The European Union has imported 44 billion euros of fossil fuels from Russia since Russia launched its special military operation against Ukraine in late February, according to Finland's Energy and Clean Air Research Center.
The Institute for European and Global Economics in Brussels estimates that the European Union currently consumes about $450 million worth of Russian oil a day.
Among EU members, landlocked Hungary and Slovakia, which import most of their oil from Russia, cannot quickly find alternative supplies. Slovakia says the transition will take years. Some officials believe Bulgaria and the Czech Republic may also seek to opt out of oil sanctions against Russia.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk pce powder are still very uncertain.
If the compatibility of polycarboxylate superplasticizer and cement is not good, the concrete mixture is prone to some problems, such as segregation, bleeding, greater slump loss, shorter setting time and so on, so that the concrete mixture can not be transported and poured normally. Reduce the strength and durability of concrete.
There are many factors affecting the compatibility of cement and superplasticizer, and the cement storage temperature is a key factor that can not be ignored. If the cement storage temperature is too high during concrete mixing, it will directly affect the physical and mechanical properties of cement.
Effect of cement temperature on the performance of concrete mixture:
When the cement temperature is above 60 ℃, a small amount of water is secreted from the concrete mixture. When the cement temperature is 100 ℃, the aggregate is separated from the paste, and the cohesion of the concrete mixture becomes worse. The reason for this negative effect is that the cement temperature is high, which makes the concrete mixture temperature rise rapidly in a short time. It is easier to stimulate the water-reducing function of polycarboxylic acid high-performance superplasticizer, release more free water wrapped in the mixture particles in the case of high temperature, and make a small amount of water bleeding in the concrete outlet.
Effect of cement temperature on setting time of concrete:
With the decrease of cement temperature, the setting time of concrete is prolonged, and the initial setting time is more obvious than the final setting time. In other words, the higher the cement temperature, the shorter the setting time of concrete. The reasons for the shortening of setting time caused by high temperature cement are as follows: (1) it will increase the temperature of the mixture in a short time and promote the hydration of cement particles; (2) the superplasticizer releases more free water to react with cement particles, thus forming a stable cementitious system in a shorter time.
With the passage of time, the heat contained in cement temperature is easily transferred to the surrounding particles or environment, the temperature of concrete system gradually approaches to the ambient temperature, and the temperature gap of concrete mixed with cement at different temperatures is gradually narrow. as a result, the difference of the final setting time of concrete is relatively reduced.
Effect of cement temperature on slump and air content loss of concrete:
At the same time, the higher the cement temperature is, the greater the slump loss rate is. The difference of slump loss rate under different temperature conditions increases at first and then decreases. Under the condition of the same slump loss rate, the lower the cement temperature is, the longer it takes to reach the slump loss rate, that is to say, the more beneficial to reflect the slump-retaining performance of the superplasticizer. When the cement temperature is high, in order to reduce the slump loss of concrete, it is necessary to put forward higher requirements for the slump retention of superplasticizer.
1. For the concrete with the same mix ratio, with the increase of cement temperature, the adaptability of admixture and cement becomes worse. The higher the temperature is, the more water is consumed, and the fluidity of concrete mixture decreases, resulting in the decrease of concrete and workability. It even leads to the separation or bleeding of aggregate and paste.
2. The higher the cement temperature, the worse the adaptability of cement and superplasticizer, the greater the loss rate of slump and air content, and the shorter the setting time of concrete.
3. The effect of the change of cement temperature on the compressive strength of concrete is obvious. with the increase of cement temperature, the compressive strength of low heat cement concrete increases in the early stage (before 7 days), but the compressive strength of 28 days decreases with the increase of temperature.
4. It is suggested that the cement temperature for concrete mixing should not exceed 60 ℃. When it exceeds 60 ℃, the concrete production system should precool the raw materials of the mixing system as far as possible to avoid excessive temperature rise of the whole mixture system due to high cement temperature. and should strengthen the maintenance of the concrete after entering the warehouse to avoid the temperature cracks caused by the early hydration temperature rising too fast.
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The latest poll by CSA for consumer finance company Cofidis shows the French are taking action to trim their budgets as inflation erodes household purchasing power.
According to Le Figaro, the poll shows that French people think they need to earn an average of 490 euros more a month in order to live a decent life. This is an increase of 23 euros compared to the purchasing power barometer published in September 2021. Amid inflation and international tensions, this average in the polls masks differences among households, with some social groups much more severely affected by the decline in purchasing power than others. Seventy-eight percent of single-parent households, 76 percent of 25-to 34-year-olds, and 72 percent of blue-collar workers said the international situation had had a negative impact on their personal finances, compared with 64 percent of all French people.
In response to rising prices, soaring energy, and food prices, in particular, the French government is preparing to launch a package of measures designed to increase the purchasing power, such as extending the energy price protection mechanism, the extension of the fuel discount measures, and more targeted alternative measures, will be distributed inflation-linked pension and social security benefits, check the "food" and so on.
Because of the soaring energy prices, the pce powder price is predicted to rise in the future.
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