The boss of Leclerc supermarket Group, France's largest food retailer, said recently that in order to cope with the energy shortage, the Leclerc Group may shorten the opening hours of its stores.
In an interview with French News Radio, Leclerc said that in the event of an energy crisis this winter, the Leclerc Group may close some of its stores for some time.
Leclerc also said that the French supermarket industry reached a consensus earlier this month to take energy-saving measures from October 15, including turning off the lights of signs and reducing the intensity of store lights after the store is closed.
European energy costs have risen after the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after Russia launched a special military operation against Ukraine in February. France imports 17 per cent of its natural gas needs from Russia and is less dependent on Russian energy than its neighbours such as Germany. However, like other European countries, France has recently continued to experience extremely high temperatures in many places, increasing demand for air conditioning and exacerbating the shortage of energy supply.
Because of the global energy crisis, the supply and prices of many international bulk pce powder are still very uncertain.
Common superplasticizers include lignosulfonates and their derivatives, advanced polyols and polyol complexes, hydroxy carboxylic acids and their salts, polyvinyl ethers and their derivatives, etc. Superplasticizer includes naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sulfonate formaldehyde condensation polymer, amine sulfonate, melamine sulfonate formaldehyde condensation polymer, etc.
Lignin superplasticizer includes calcium lignosulfonate (calcium lignosulfonate), sodium lignosulfonate (sodium lignosulfonate), magnesium lignosulfonate (magnesium lignosulfonate), etc. Among them, wood calcium superplasticizer is widely used.
Wood calcium superplasticizer is based on the waste liquid of sulfite pulp from the production of paper pulp or fiber pulp as raw material and neutralized by lime milk. A brown powder prepared by removing sugar by biological fermentation, evaporating and concentrating, and spray drying. Belongs to the anionic polymer surfactant, the suitable amount of wood calcium superplasticizer is generally 0.2%-0.3% of the cement quality. The water reduction rate is 10%-15%, and the 28-day compressive strength of concrete is increased by 10%-20%. If there is no water reduction, the slump of concrete can be increased by 80% 100mm; if the compressive strength and slump of concrete remain unchanged, the amount of cement can be saved by about 10%. Wood calcium superplasticizer has retarding effect on concrete, and its retarding effect is more significant when it is added too much or at low temperature, and it may also reduce the strength of concrete.
Wood calcium superplasticizer can be used in general concrete projects, especially in large area pouring, slip form construction, pumping concrete and summer construction. Wood calcium superplasticizer should not be used alone in winter construction. When the daily minimum temperature is below 5 ℃, it should be combined with early strength agent or antifreeze. Wood calcium superplasticizer should not be used alone in steam-cured concrete and prestressed concrete to avoid looseness on the surface of steam-cured concrete.
Naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer
Naphthalene superplasticizer is made from naphthalene or naphthalene homologue by sulfonation and formaldehyde. At present, China mainly produces NNO, NF, FDN, UNF, MF, Jian I and other superplasticizers, most of which are non-air-entraining superplasticizers. It is a water reducer with anthracene superplasticizer, methyl naphthalene superplasticizer, gumarone superplasticizer and coal tar mixture. because its raw materials come from different components of coal tar, it is collectively called coal tar superplasticizer.
The suitable amount of naphthalene superplasticizer is 0.5%-1.0% of the cement quality, the water-reducing rate is 10%-25%, and the 28d strength of concrete is increased by more than 20%. The naphthalene superplasticizer has good water-reducing and strengthening effect and strong adaptability to different kinds of cement. It is suitable for preparing early strength, high strength, flow state and steam curing concrete, but the slump loss is large.
Water soluble resin superplasticizer
This kind of superplasticizer is made from some water-soluble resins, such as melamine resin (melamine superplasticizer) and so on. The strengthening effect of this kind of superplasticizer is remarkable, and it is a superplasticizer. Domestic products include SM resin superplasticizer and so on. The content of SM superplasticizer is 0.5%-2.0% of the cement quality, the water-reducing rate is 15%-27%, and the 3D strength of concrete can be increased by 30%-100%-28d strength by 20%-30%. SM superplasticizer is suitable for preparing high strength concrete, early strength concrete, fluid concrete and steam curing concrete.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer was produced in the 1980s. Generally speaking, polycarboxylate superplasticizer can be divided into two categories: one is grafting different polyoxyethylene (EO) or polyoxypropylene (PO) branched chains with maleic anhydride as the main chain, and the other is methacrylic acid (EO) or (PO) branched chains.
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Due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict and the covid-19 pandemic, how will the international situation develop is highly uncertain. It is too difficult to assess its economic impact properly. However, we could see energy prices and commodity prices keep rising and supply chains are disrupted. Therefore, pce powder prices are expected to rise in the future.
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