A recent poll in Britain found that public support for sanctions against Russia is falling as fuel and prices rise.
The proportion of people willing to accept higher fuel prices as a result of western sanctions against Russia fell 14 percentage points to 36% from 50% in March, according to a survey conducted for the Telegraph by consultancy Redfield & Wilton Strategies.
Global energy and fuel prices have soared since the start of the year and remain high because of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and uncertainty over Russian supplies.
The survey also found that 54% of people believe their own financial situation has worsened in the past year, up 12 percentage points from 42% two months ago. Sixty-two percent think things will get worse in the year ahead. Less than a third of respondents said they had received a pay rise to keep up with inflation, with two-thirds of those saying it was not enough to keep up with rising living costs.
The figures suggest that public concern about the conflict with Ukraine is now likely to be overtaken by financial worries.
Separately, the UK's consumer price index rose 7 percent this month from a year earlier, the highest since March 1992, according to figures released recently by the Office for National Statistics. In addition, a separate report released a few days ago by the Centre for Economics and Business Research said that real household disposable income in the UK will fall by 3% in 2022, equivalent to a loss of £2,320 per household, which would lead to the biggest drop in living standards since the 1950s. That is mainly because wages aren't keeping up with rising energy and fuel costs.
The prices of other commodities like the boron nitride powder are also expected to be influenced.
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) is a super-hard material synthesized by hexagonal boron nitride and catalyst at high temperature and high pressure. Among the super-hard materials which have been industrially applied, the hardness of CBN is second only to diamond. The thermal stability of cubic boron nitride is much higher than that of diamond, and it has greater chemical stability to iron series metal elements, so cubic boron nitride abrasives are widely used in the field of cutting and grinding of iron-based metal products.
Types of Cubic Boron Nitride CBN
There are two kinds of cubic boron nitride: single crystal and polycrystalline sintered body.
The single crystal is prepared by hexagonal boron nitride and catalyst at a pressure of 3000 ~ 8000 MPA and a temperature of 800℃ to 1900℃. Typical catalyst materials are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, tin, lead, antimony and their nitrides. The crystal forms of cubic boron nitride include tetrahedral truncated cone, octahedron, crooked crystal and double crystal. Industrial cubic boron nitride is available in black, amber and metal-plated surfaces, and the particle size is usually less than 1 mm.
Application of Boron Nitride Polycrystals in Metal Cutting
Cubic boron nitride polycrystal (PCBN) tool is a kind of super-hard material product which is composed of many fine grains (0.1μm 100μm) CBN.
It not only has high hardness and high wear resistance, but also has the characteristics of high toughness, chemical inertia, red hardness and so on, and can be sharpened by diamond grinding wheel. It shows excellent cutting performance in all aspects of cutting, and can achieve stable cutting at high temperature. it is especially suitable for machining all kinds of hardened steel, tool steel, chilled cast iron and other high hardness difficult-to-machining materials. The tool has the advantages of sharp cutting, good shape retention, high wear resistance, small unit wear, less correction times, and is conducive to automatic machining. it is suitable for all cutting processes from roughing to finishing.
Performance and Properties of PCBN
PCBN not only has most of the properties of CBN, but also overcomes the shortcomings of directional cleavage of CBN single crystal plane, and has many performance advantages.
1. High hardness. The hardness of PCBN tool is second only to diamond and much higher than that of cemented carbide and ceramic tools, so it can process hardened steel, cast iron and cemented carbide with hardness above HRC60.
2. High wear resistance. The wear resistance of PCBN tools is much higher than that of cemented carbide and ceramics, and its service life is usually 3 to 5 times longer than that of ceramic tools and 5 times to 15 times that of cemented carbide tools.
3. High chemical inertia. The chemical reaction between PCBN and iron group elements and their alloys is not easy to occur at 1200℃ to 1300℃, which overcomes the chemical affinity between polycrystalline diamond tools and iron, has high oxidation resistance, and the bonding and diffusion effect on various materials is much less than that of cemented carbide.
4. High thermal stability. The heat resistance of PCBN can reach 1400℃, which is much higher than that of diamond tools (700℃ to 800℃). It is proved that the cutting temperature above 1100℃ can still maintain high sharp cutting performance, which is suitable for dry cutting.
5. High thermal conductivity. Among all kinds of tool materials, the thermal conductivity of PCBN is 79.54W/(m·k), which is second only to diamond and much better than cemented carbide, and the thermal conductivity of PCBN will be improved with the increase of temperature.
6. Low friction coefficient. Compared with other tool materials, the friction coefficient of PCBN is low. The friction coefficient between PCBN and different materials is about 0.1 ~ 0.3, while that of cemented carbide is 0.4 ~ 0.6, and the friction coefficient decreases with the increase of cutting speed, so that the cutting force decreases and the phenomenon of chip sticking is reduced.
Application of Cubic Boron Nitride in Grinding Field
Cubic boron nitride grinding tools have excellent grinding performance, which can complete the processing of difficult-to-grind materials, improve productivity and effectively improve the grinding quality of workpieces. It can also strictly control the shape and size of the workpiece and improve the surface integrity of the workpiece after grinding, so as to improve the fatigue strength of the parts and prolong the service life.
Cubic boron nitride micro-powder is suitable for resin, metal, ceramic and other binder systems, can also be used in the production of polycrystalline composite sheets, can also be used as loose abrasives, grinding paste and so on.
Supplier of Boron Nitride BN Powder
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and nanomaterials including silicon powder, nitride powder, graphite powder, zinc sulfide, calcium nitride, 3D printing powder, etc.
If you are looking for high-quality BN powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. ([email protected])
The EU’s draft REPowerEU plan calls for an increase of 15TWh of rooftop PV capacity by 2022. The draft also calls for EU and national governments to take action this year to reduce the time required to obtain permits for rooftop PV installations to three months, and proposes that "all new buildings and existing buildings with an energy grade OF D or above should have rooftop PV installations by 2025".
In addition, the European Commission is likely to set a target for installed PV capacity of 300GW by 2025 and 500GW by 2030. Some members are more aggressive, with Austria, Belgium, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Spain demanding a 1TW target for 2030.
The REPowerEU initiative, worth 195 billion euros, was proposed by the EU on March 8 to phase out member states' dependence on Russian fossil fuels by 2030. In a few days, the European Commission will present a package to implement the RePowerEU strategy.
As an important application scenario of distributed PV, rooftop PV is not limited to land, and the development conditions are relatively convenient.
Since the end of 2021, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and other countries have introduced policies and measures such as government subsidies, tax cuts, fee reductions, and accelerated grid-connection approval to encourage the development of distributed PV. Europe's potential for rooftop PV is huge and will continue to be an important growth pole for the industry, according to Wood Mackenzie.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology is a trusted chemical supplier and manufacturer providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials. If you are looking for the boron nitride powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.
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